[1] The same observation has been made by Derek Bailey, Improvisation: Its Nature and Practice in Music, second revised edition, London 1992: The British Library National Sound Archive, p. xii.

[2] The interview was conducted by Art Lange in connection with the release of the record which Metheny recorded with Coleman. It was published in Down Beat, no. 6, 1986 with the title "Pat Metheny & Ornette Coleman - Songs of Innocence and Experience".

[3] This statement was included in the first edition of Bailey`s book Improvisation (Ashbourne 1981: Mooreland Publ., p. 151), but has apparently been deleted from the second edition of the book (quoted in note 1) and has not been replaced by any similarly explicit expression of the same thought. However, several statements hinting at more or less the same idea can be found on pp. 83-85 & 142.

[4] Expressed during an interview I conducted with David Moss in 1990, which was published in the Swedish magazine for jazz, Orkesterjournalen, no. 12, 1990, as "Musikalisk mångfald hindrar förstelning" (Musical variety prevents rigidity).

[5] The interview was conducted by me, and published as "Improvisationen är en musikalisk metod som följer sina egna lagar" (Improvisation is a musical method which follows its own laws), in Orkesterjournalen, no. 5, 1990.

[6] For the person who has committed to an ambition to be innovative, the attitude of the free improviser may thereby be seen as a tool which is used in as much as it promotes the aim of the avant-garde.

[7] The last mentioned goal seems to have been embraced by John Cage, at least as to be judged by a TV-interview made quite late in his life. Cage said that the goal for his creative activity was to change people's conception of and relation to the sound surrounding them.

[8] See Graham Lock, Forces in Motion - Anthony Braxton and the Meta-Reality of Creative Music, London 1988: Quartet Books. Braxton is an American multiinstrumentalist, composer and a prominent figure within the particular type of improvised music which has grown out of the jazz tradition.

[9] Dror Feiler: "Improvisation and resistance", in Sounds, accompanying booklet to the double-LP SOUNDS - Contemporary Free Improvised Music in Sweden, Blue Tower records BTLP 01/02, 1990, p. 32. Feiler is a reed player and composer as well as leader of the groups Lokomotiv Konkret and The Too Much Too Soon Orchestra.

[10] Johan Petri: "Unica", in Sounds, accompanying booklet to the double-LP SOUNDS - Contemporary Free Improvised Music in Sweden, Blue Tower records BTLP 01/02, 1990, p. 12. Petri is member of the group Så Vidare.

[11] To support this claim in a minimally thorough way would lead much too much astray. Let me just point to one thing. Even if we, in our music-making, do (believe ourselves to do) our best to free ourselves from influences of internalised idiomatic codes, this very aspiration has most certainly sprung from such a code - a way of seeing art and music which we have been made to internalise. Hence, even if we would succeed, the result reached would most adequately have to be described as the outcome of a successfully applied traditional or idiomatic norm.

[12] Originally written in Swedish, this text was first published as "Vad är fri improvisation?" in the Swedish magazine for contemporary art-music, Nutida Musik, no. 2, 1992, pp. 12-15. The thoughts expressed in it are anticipated in two earlier texts: "Free Improvised music in Sweden", in Sounds, accompanying booklet to the double-LP SOUNDS - Contemporary Free Improvised Music in Sweden, Blue Tower Records BTLP 01/02, 1990, pp. 4-10; and "From things to sounds ... from sounds to things", linear-notes to a CD by the Swedish free improvising group GUSH, From Things to Sounds..., Dragon Records DRCD 204, 1991.